Journal Articles

Tip: Click on each link to expand and view the content. Click again to collapse.

Chapter 1: The Necessity of Intercultural Communication

Campbell, N., (2012). Promoting Intercultural Contact on Campus: A Project to Connect and Engage International and Host Students. Journal of Studies in International Education, 16, (3) 205-227.

Abstract: International students’ adjustment to living in an unfamiliar cultural environment and studying in a different educational system and language has been a topic of much research. Literature has shown that support from the host community could be the difference between a smooth transition and one fraught with problems and difficulties. This article describes a “buddy project” used in an intercultural communication class in which each student was a buddy for a newly arrived international student for a semester. The purpose of the project was to give social support to international students in the crucial first few months of their sojourn while at the same time complementing host students’ class-based theoretical learning with practical, meaningful experience with peers from another culture. The article discusses the outcomes, challenges, and students’ evaluations of the experiential learning exercise. Recommendations for future projects are outlined.

Capell, J., Dean, E., & Veenstra, G., (2008). The Relationship Between Cultural Competence and Ethnocentrism of Health Care Professionals. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19 (2), 121-125.

Abstract: The study examined the relationship between cultural competence and ethnocentrism among health care professionals. Physical therapists, occupational therapists, and nurses ( N = 71) from three hospitals in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, participated in the survey research project. The survey questionnaire incorporated the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among Healthcare Professionals—Revised and the Generalized Ethnocentrism Scale. Cultural competence scores and ethnocentrism scores were inversely related (r = –.28, p = .017). Results suggest that cultural competence may not be entirely distinct from ethnocentrism. The construct of cultural competence warrants further study vis-à-vis its correlates and its impact on clinical outcomes.

Fall, L.T., Kelly, S., MacDonald, P., Primm, C., & Holmes, W. (2013). Intercultural Communication Apprehension and Emotional Intelligence in Higher Education: Preparing Business Students for Career Success. Business Communication Quarterly, 76 (4), 412-426.

Abstract: Given the expanding globalized workforce, business educators continue to seek new ways to prepare students for intercultural encounters. Although immersion in other cultures is the optimal strategy, this method is not always feasible. As such, educators seek other mechanisms to simulate intercultural experiences. This study examines emotional intelligence as a predictor of intercultural communication apprehension among university students (N = 425). Results indicate that three of the emotional intelligence subscales predict intercultural communication apprehension: emotionality, sociability, and self-control. These results support the premise that emotional intelligence manages and/or reduces intercultural communication apprehension and therefore should be integrated in business curriculum.

Hammond, R.A., & Axelrod, R., (2006). The Evolution of Ethnocentrism. Journal of Conflict Resolution 50 (6), 926-936.

Abstract: Ethnocentrism is a nearly universal syndrome of attitudes and behaviors, typically including in-group favoritism. Empirical evidence suggests that a predisposition to favor in-groups can be easily triggered by even arbitrary group distinctions and that preferential cooperation within groups occurs even when it is individually costly. The authors study the emergence and robustness of ethnocentric behaviors of in-group favoritism, using an agent-based evolutionary model. They show that such behaviors can become widespread under a broad range of conditions and can support very high levels of cooperation, even in one-move prisoner’s dilemma games. When cooperation is especially costly to individuals, the authors show how ethnocentrism itself can be necessary to sustain cooperation.

Welch-Borden, A., (2007). The Impact of Service-Learning on Ethnocentrism in an Intercultural Communication Course. Journal of Experiential Education,30,( 2), 171-183.

Abstract: This study analyzes a project involving students enrolled in an intercultural communication class that employs service-learning. Participants were given the Generalized Ethnocentrism (GENE) scale developed by Neuliep and McCroskey at the beginning and conclusion of a semester of service-learning with a cultural group different than their own. Results indicate a significant decrease in ethnocentrism from the beginning to the end of the semester. Analysis of students' written reflections about their service experiences reinforces the conclusion that service-learning played a part in reducing ethnocentrism. Although further research is needed to provide a control for the manipulation, there is a preliminary indication that service-learning with diverse cultures may provide a type of consistent, deep, and meaningful contact that leads to lower levels of ethnocentrism.

Chapter 2: The Cultural Context

Györkös, C., Becker, J., Koorosh Massoudi, K., Antonietti, J-P., Pocnet, C., de Bruin, G.P., & Rossier, J. (2013). Comparing the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism Scale and the Auckland Individualism and Collectivism Scale in Two Cultures: Switzerland and South Africa. Cross-Cultural Research, 47,( 3) 310-33.

Abstract: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism Scale (HVIC) and the Auckland Individualism and Collectivism Scale (AICS). The sample consisted of 1,403 working individuals from Switzerland (N = 585) and from South Africa (N = 818). Principal component factor analyses indicated that a two-factor structure replicated well across the two countries for both scales. In addition, the HVIC four-factor structure replicated well across countries, whereas the responsibility dimension of individualism of the AICS replicated poorly. Confirmatory factor analyses provided satisfactory support to the original theoretical models for both the HVIC and the AICS. Equivalence measurement indices indicated that the cross-cultural replicability properties of both instruments are generally acceptable. However, canonical correlations and correlations between the HVIC and AICS dimensions confirm that these two instruments differ in their underlying meaning of the individualism and collectivism constructs, suggesting that these two instruments assess individualism and collectivism differently.

Hamamura, T., (2012). Are Cultures Becoming Individualistic? A Cross-Temporal Comparison of Individualism–Collectivism in the United States and Japan. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16,( 1), 3-24.

Abstract: Individualism–collectivism is one of the best researched dimensions of culture in psychology. One frequently asked but underexamined question regards its cross-temporal changes: Are cultures becoming individualistic? One influential theory of cultural change, modernization theory, predicts the rise of individualism as a consequence of economic growth. Findings from past research are generally consistent with this theory, but there is also a body of evidence suggesting its limitations. To examine these issues, cross-temporal analyses of individualism–collectivism in the United States and Japan were conducted. Diverging patterns of cultural changes were found across indices: In both countries, some of the obtained indices showed rising individualism over the past several decades, supporting the modernization theory. However, other indices showed patterns that are best understood within the frameworks of a shifting focus of social relationships and a persisting cultural heritage. A comprehensive theory of cultural change requires considerations of these factors in addition to the modernization effect.

Hsu, S.Y., & Barker, G.G., (2013). Individualism and Collectivism in Chinese and American Television Advertising. International Communication Gazette, 75, (8), 695-714.

Abstract: This study examined the cultural values promoted in television advertisements targeting younger and older audiences in China and the US, respectively, testing the hypothesis that ads in China would reflect a value shift caused by the open-door policy implemented in 1979. A content analysis of 566 television ads was conducted, rating the degree of individualism and collectivism, as well as the prominence of modern and traditional themes. As predicted, ads targeting younger Chinese scored higher in individualism than collectivism. Compared to ads targeting the older demographic, ads targeting younger Chinese scored higher in individualism, with no significant differences in the other three dimensions. As expected, mean scores for individualism and modernity were higher in the American ads, while mean scores for collectivism and tradition were lower. The results revealed no differences in the scores between younger and older audiences in the US.

Nesdale D., & Naito, M., (2005). Individualism-Collectivism and the Attitudes to School Bullying of Japanese and Australian Students. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36,( 5), 537-556.

Abstract: This study examined whether collectivism versus individualism influences participants’ attitudes toward group-based bullying. Student members of a collectivistic culture (Japan; n = 158) versus an individualistic culture (Australia; n = 157) read about a school bullying episode. Collectivistic responses were predicted when the victim was a student from the same culture as the participant, and the classroom group had a norm of bullying versus helping. Individualistic responses were predicted when the participant learned that he or she was personally connected with the bully or the victim. Contrary to predictions, the participants’ attitudes reflected the interaction of nationality and gender, with the gender difference being greater between the Japanese versus Australian participants. In contrast, the participants’ behavior intentions mainly reflected their nationality—the Japanese participants revealed a greater likelihood of bullying, and a lower likelihood of helping a victim, than did the Australians. The implications for research on individualism-collectivism and bullying are discussed.

Chapter 3: The Microcultural Context

Ardila, A., (2005). Spanglish: An Anglicized Spanish Dialect. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 27 (1), 60-81.

Abstract: The blend between Spanish and English found in Hispanic or Latino communities in the United States is usually known as “Spanglish.” It is suggested that Spanglish represents the most important contemporary linguistic phenomenon in the United States that has barely been approached from a linguistic point of view. Spanglish may be interpreted in different ways: as a pidgin, a Creole language, an interlanguage, or an anglicized Spanish dialect. Regardless that Spanglish is spoken by millions of people, significant variations within the language are observed. To account for its development, two types of phenomena are proposed: superficial, including borrowing and code-switching; and deep, including lexical-semantic, grammatical, and the “equalization to English” phenomenon. An analysis of both superficial and deep Spanglish phenomena is presented. It is suggested that the future of Spanglish depends on two factors: (a) number of Spanish speaking immigrants to the United States, and (b) U.S. policies concerning bilingualism.

Bermudez, J.M., Sharp, E.A., & Tanigichi, N., (2013). Tapping Into the Complexity: Ambivalent Sexism, Dating, and Familial Beliefs Among Young Hispanics. Journal of Family Issues, published online: 28, October 2013. DOI: 10.1177/0192513X13506706

Abstract: Drawing on ambivalent sexism and Chicana feminist theories, the purpose of the study was to explore ambivalent sexism and traditional relational scripts among a regional sample of 141 Hispanic young adults. Data derived from self-report questionnaires indicated that men scored higher on hostile sexism and traditional relational scripts but not on benevolent sexism. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood procedure was applied and path analyses indicated that, for both men and women, higher endorsement of benevolent and hostile sexism predicted higher traditional dating scripts and family roles. Gender made a difference only in relation to hostile sexism on traditional dating scripts, with men having a stronger association than women. Women’s strongest path was between hostile sexism and family scripts. We discuss these nuanced gendered differences between dating and family relationships as well as stereotypical gendered and cultural notions of Hispanic values. Implications are considered.

Hayes, E.R., & Swim, J.K., (2013). African, Asian, Latina/o, and European Americans’ Responses to Popular Measures of Sexist Beliefs: Some Cautionary Notes. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37 (2),155-166.

Abstract: The validity and internal reliability for scores on four popular measures of sexist beliefs (the Modern Sexism scale, the Attitudes Toward Women scale, and the Benevolent and Hostile Sexism subscales of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory; collected from 1994 to 1999 with college students) were tested across four U.S. ethnic groups: 174 African American, 357 Asian American, 147 Latina/o American, and 5,629 European American participants. With some caveats, results from internal reliability, correlations among the measures, and mean endorsement indicated that these measures are suitable across the four ethnic groups examined. Caveats are that the Modern Sexism scale may not be a subtle measure of sexist beliefs in African American populations, and the Benevolent Sexism scale may not be adequate for Latina/o and African American participants. Ethnic group differences emerged in mean responses to these two measures. Taken together, these findings aid researchers in the more efficient and accurate usage of these popular measures of sexist beliefs, particularly with African American, Asian American, and Latina/o American respondents.

Schildkraut, D. J., (2013). Which Birds of a Feather Flock Together? Assessing Attitudes About Descriptive Representation Among Latinos and Asian Americans. American Politics Research, l. 41 (4), 699-729.

Abstract: This study assesses preferences for descriptive representation among Latinos and Asian Americans. The findings are consistent across data sets, measurement strategies, and panethnic groups: Latinos and Asian Americans who do not think of themselves primarily as American, who think that their fate is tied to that of the group, and who are less acculturated are more likely than others to prefer coethnic representatives. The implications of these findings are discussed, with a focus on the conditions under which the nation’s rapidly diversifying population could promote competing views about political representation in the United States.

Taylor, C.R., Landreth, S., & Bang, H-K., (2005). Asian Americans in Magazine Advertising: Portrayals of the “Model Minority.”  Journal of Macromarketing, 25 (2), 163-174.

Abstract: Prior studies of portrayals of Asian Americans in advertising have found limited representation and portrayals that are skewed toward technology-based products, business and science magazines, and business settings and relationships. This article examines current Asian American portrayals. Findings indicate that, despite improved representation, stereotyped portrayals persist. The “model minority” stereotype, which suggests that Asian Americans are hardworking, technologically savvy, business oriented, successful, and well assimilated, is clearly reflected in advertising portrayals. Portrayals of Asian Americans in family and social contexts are seldom seen. Moreover, even magazines with high Asian American readership reflect the same stereotypes.

Chapter 4: The Environmental Context

Fisher, S., (2010). Violence Against Women and Natural Disasters: Findings From Post-Tsunami Sri Lanka. Violence Against Women, 16, (8), 902-918.

Abstract: This article presents a qualitative study of violence against women in post-tsunami Sri Lanka. It examines the types of violence occurring throughout the disaster’s emergency and later phases, and whether overall levels of violence increased. Explanatory factors and responses by different humanitarian actors are analyzed and recommendations made for future disaster management. It is argued that violence against women during natural disasters must be understood within the context of the violence against women that prevails in societies at “normal” times, which is exacerbated by disaster. Response therefore necessitates addressing both the social inequalities underlying women’s vulnerability to violence and specific factors that “trigger” violence during disaster.

Lindquist, J.D., & Kaufman-Scarborough, C. (2007). The Polychronic—Monochronic Tendency Model: PMTS scale development and validation. Time & Society, 16,( 2-3,) 253-285.

Abstract: Polychronicity has traditionally been defined as a form of behavior wherein a person engages in two or more activities during the same block of time, while monochronicity occurs when a person engages in one activity at a time. These concepts have become increasingly relevant in discussions of `time personality', worktime in the home, and technological impacts on time. Other underlying dimensions of polychronicity also exist, such as preferences and feelings towards whether to combine activities or not. In order to reflect this more complex perspective, a validated, updated measure of a person's polychronic—monochronic overall tendency is needed. The present study is a re-inquiry and extension of the Polychronic Attitude Index (PAI), introduced in 1991. In the current research plan we propose, develop, and validate a general five-item comprehensive `reflective' single factor extended model. The general Polychronic—Monochronic Tendency Model is constructed using confirmatory factor analysis. The five-item summated scale from this model is named the Polychronic—Monochronic Tendency Scale (PMTS). A series of five separate studies were used to variously test for social desirability response bias, internal consistency, discriminant validity, and nomological validity. The PAI is also compared statistically to PMTS with the latter being clearly stronger. A discussion of the results and research implications are presented.

Nix-Stevenson, D., (2013). Human Response to Natural Disasters. SAGE Open
July-September, 3, 1–12

Abstract: This study elaborates on the connection between socioeconomic status, education, and the ability to respond to natural disasters. Using the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and other natural disasters as teachable moments, I foreground how uneven access to resources and capital leave some people more vulnerable than others to natural disasters and how marginal communities inevitably bear the accompanying repercussions of who gets what, when, and how much in the postdisaster emergency relief and reconstruction phase. This occurs not necessarily and merely through a “natural” disaster, as the Boxer Day Tsunami or Hurricane Katrina, but through processes of social, political, and economic disempowerment associated with prior racialized histories and inequitable access to cultural capital.

Zhu, Y., Breitung, W., & Li, S., (2012). The Changing Meaning of Neighbourhood Attachment in Chinese Commodity Housing Estates: Evidence from Guangzhou. Urban Studies, 49, (11), 2439-2457.

Abstract: The housing reform in urban China since the 1990s and the ensuing spatial and social dynamics gave rise to new kinds of neighbourhoods with new logics of neighbouring and neighbourhood attachment. Meanwhile, neighbourhoods are actively promoted as platforms for policy implementation. Both are reasons to revisit the meaning of neighbourhood attachment in the Chinese context. This article focuses on the roles of neighbourly interaction and physical environment, juxtaposing post-reform commodity housing estates against traditional neighbourhoods. The analysis draws on both qualitative and quantitative datasets from three case studies in Guangzhou and a city-wide survey. Results indicate that, compared with traditional neighbourhoods, residents of commodity housing estates have weak neighbourly interactions but strong neighbourhood attachment, which is based mainly on their satisfaction with the physical environment and less on their neighbourly contacts. Neighbourhoods in China have apparently shifted their function from social arenas to privatised living environments.

Chapter 5: The Perceptual Context

Barber, S. J., & Mather, M., (2013). Stereotype Threat Can Both Enhance and Impair Older Adults’ Memory. Psychological Science, 24 (12), 2522-2529.

Abstract: Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults’ memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults’ working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses.

Brambilla, M., Ravenna, M., & Hewstone, M., (2012). Changing stereotype content through mental imagery: Imagining intergroup contact promotes stereotype change. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 15, 305-315.

Abstract: Research has recently shown that imagining intergroup contact can reduce hostility toward outgroups. The present experiment explored whether imagining intergroup contact leads to more positive perceptions of outgroups differentially stereotyped on the two fundamental dimensions of social perception, namely warmth and competence. Depending on the experimental condition, participants (N = 123) imagined either an intergroup encounter with an outgroup member rated as high (vs. low) on warmth and competence or an outdoor scene. Results showed that imagining an intergroup encounter enhances warmth and competence perception of dehumanized groups, and promotes the perception of warmth and competence of envied and paternalized groups, respectively. These findings suggest that imagined contact could promote positive intergroup relationships toward a wide range of social groups, even dehumanized groups.

Lee, Y-T., Vue, S., Seklecki, R., & Ma, Y., (2007). How Did Asian Americans Respond to Negative Stereotypes and Hate Crimes? American Behavioral Scientist, 51 (2), 271-293.

Abstract: Stereotypes and hate crimes are complex issues. Stereotypes usually have three dimensions— Evaluation or valence, Potency, and Accuracy (EPA). According to the EPA model of stereotypes and stereotyping, negative and inaccurate stereotypes are more prone to bias and prejudice. This article uses the EPA model to test two assumptions. First, stereotypes would produce a differential impact on Asian Americans, which is contingent on the accuracy and valence of stereotypes to Asian Americans. Inaccurate negative stereotypes may offend Asian Americans more than accurate negative stereotypes. Second, Asian Americans may be more sensitive or responsive to a hate crime situation in which Asian Americans are racially targeted as the only victims than to one in which both Asian Americans and other minority Americans are racially targeted as victims together. The results from the two studies strongly corroborate these two assumptions, which provide more support for the EPA model of stereotypes and stereotyping.

Crandall, C.S., Bahns, A. J., Warner, R., & Schaller. M., (2011). Stereotypes as Justifications of Prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37 (11),1488-1498.

Abstract: Three experiments investigate how stereotypes form as justifications for prejudice. The authors created novel content-free prejudices toward unfamiliar social groups using either subliminal (Experiment 1, N = 79) or supraliminal (Experiment 2, N = 105; Experiment 3, N = 130) affective conditioning and measured the consequent endorsement of stereotypes about the groups. Following the stereotype content model, analyses focused on the extent to which stereotypes connoted warmth or competence. Results from all three experiments revealed effects on the warmth dimension but not on the competence dimension: Groups associated with negative affect were stereotyped as comparatively cold (but not comparatively incompetent). These results provide the first evidence that—in the absence of information, interaction, or history of behavioral discrimination—stereotypes develop to justify prejudice.

Chapter 6: The Socio-Relational Context

Chois, N., Fuqua, D.R., & Newman, J.L. (2008). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory: Continuing Theoretical Problems. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68 (5), 881-900.

Abstract: Pedhazur and Tetenbaum speculated that factor structures from self-ratings of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) personality traits would be different from factor structures from desirability ratings of the same traits. To explore this hypothesis, both desirability ratings of BSRI traits (both for a man and for a woman) and self-ratings were obtained from the same sample and factor analyzed. Factor analyses performed on the three sets of ratings of the 40 BSRI traits (self-ratings, desirability ratings for a man, and desirability ratings for a woman) confirmed that the factors across ratings were diverse. Thus, the underlying constructs must be studied independently. Predictive discriminant analyses replicated the finding that two traits alone (Masculine and Feminine) provided nearly all of the discrimination of males and females in the sample when self-ratings were employed. Also, predictive discriminant analyses revealed that the classification of participants into gender groups was very accurate using self-ratings but deteriorated remarkably when using the desirability ratings.

Isaac, R., & Shah, A., (2004). Sex Roles and Marital Adjustment in Indian Couples. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50 (2), 129-141.

Abstract: Background: Marital theorists suggest a link between sex role differences and close relationships for men and women. Marriage is often a context for the activation and expression of sex roles. As marital adjustment is influenced by complementarity of roles between husband and wife, the same could hold true for sex roles as well.
Aim: To study the relationship between sex roles and marital adjustment in Indian couples. Methods: The sample consisted of 20 distressed and 20 non-distressed couples from a marital and family therapy centre in the city of Bangalore, India. The measures used included a sociodemographic data sheet, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Bem Sex Role Inventory and a semi-structured interview schedule for gendered experiences. Means, percentages and ANOVAS were used to analyse statistically the data. Content analysis was applied on material from the semistructured interview schedule. Results: The study revealed that: (a) the group as a whole showed greater femininity than masculinity; (b) more non-distressed individuals show high androgyny; (c) androgynous dyads show better marital adjustment; and (d) qualitative analysis suggests a trend for couples to move towards more gender-neutral constructions of marriage. Conclusions: The results indicate a link between androgyny and marital adjustment. The results also suggest the type of match between dyads

Kulik, L., (2004). The Relationship between Background Variables and Sex-Typing of Gender Roles and Children’s Chores: The Israeli Case. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 45 (5), 365-384.

Abstract: The article examines the relationship between sex-typing of adult gender roles and children’s chores in Israeli society. Adult gender roles were examined from a general perspective, while children’s chores were examined in five distinctive areas - domestic chores, help with siblings, self-care, outside, and technical chores. The research sample consisted of 238 married and unmarried participants (81 men and 157 women). Specifically, sex-typing of adult gender roles and children’s chores was examined in relation to three sets of background variables: (1) personal background variables (age, religiosity, and ethnicity); (2) education and employment variables (level of education, extent of job position, and earning patterns); and (3) family variables (marital status, length of marriage, number of children, and age of children). The women tended to have less sex-typed attitudes than the men did with regard to children’s chores. However, no differences were found between the genders with regard to sex-typing of adult gender roles. In addition, the married women expressed more sex-typed attitudes toward adult gender roles than did unmarried women, whereas the differences between married and unmarried men were less significant. Among both genders, a correlation was found between sex-typing of adult gender roles and domestic children’s chores.

Risman, B.J., & Davis, G., (2013). From sex roles to gender structure. Current Sociology, 61 (5-6), 733-755.

Abstract: This article has two goals, an intellectual history of gender as a concept and to outline a framework for moving forward theory and research on gender conceptualized as a structure of social stratification. The authors’ first goal is to trace the conceptual development of the study of sex and gender throughout the 20th century to now. They do this from a feminist sociological standpoint, framing the question with particular concern for power and inequality. The authors use a modernist perspective, showing how theory and research built in a cumulative fashion, with empirical studies sometimes supporting and sometimes challenging current theories, often leads to new ones. The authors then offer their theoretical contribution, framing gender as a social structure as a means to integrate the wide variety of empirical research findings on causal explanations for and consequences of gender. This framework includes attention to: the differences and similarities between women and men as individuals, the stability of and changing expectations we hold for each sex during social interaction, and the mechanisms by which gender is embedded into the logic of social institutions and organizations. At each level of analysis, there is a focus on the organization of social life and the cultural logics that accompany such patterns.

Chapter 7: The Verbal Code: Human Language

Eustace, E., (2012). Speaking allowed? Workplace regulation of regional dialect. Work, Employment & Society, 26 (2), 331-348.

Abstract: This article addresses speech as an aspect of aesthetic labour. It demonstrates that, because speech is bound up with identity, attempts to enforce appropriacy in the speech of service sector workers may generate dilemmas and resistance. The article offers empirical ethno-linguistic data from Glasgow in Scotland. The data suggest that proscriptive approaches deny the linguistic identity and agency of the speaker and do little to enhance the work experience of employees or their communicative relationships with customers in service environments.

Nicoladis, E., & Foursha-Stevenson, C., (2012). Language and Culture Effects on Gender Classification of Objects. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43 (7),1095-1109.

Abstract: The present studies test whether French grammatical gender affects bilingual children’s classification of objects as boys or girls in English, in children aged 3 to 5 years (Study 1) and aged 8 to 10 years (Study 2), compared to monolingual children to control for possible cultural biases. In both studies, children tended to classify more objects as boys than as girls. In Study 1, the bilingual children showed a reduced boy bias relative to monolinguals. Only the older children showed a by-object effect of French gender. The bilinguals’ and monolinguals’ classifications were highly correlated. In Study 3, English-speaking adults classified object names as boys or girls. The adults’ classifications were highly correlated with the children’s. The authors argue that the classification of objects by gender is affected by cultural biases as well as knowledge of French. The effect of French knowledge is modified by age.

Mai, R., & Hofmann, S., (2011). Four Positive Effects of a Salesperson’s Regional Dialect in Services Selling. Journal of Service Research, 14 (4), 460-474.

Abstract: This research analyzes how a salesperson’s regional dialect influences the efficacy of services selling. Four dialect effects are derived from theories of information processing, accent prestige theory, and social identity theory. In the first study, 92 industrial buyers, and in the second study, 126 customers evaluated salespersons after actual sales conversations. In contrast to conventional wisdom, both studies show that buyers do not generally devalue salespersons with a dialect. If speech is of high quality, a regional dialect improves satisfaction with the salesperson, rather than reducing it. Favorable sound qualities and prestigious stereotypical associations with the dialect also raise satisfaction with the salesperson. Moreover, the fit between salesperson and buyer dialects enhances satisfaction with the company and fosters purchase intention. In order to increase their persuasiveness, salespersons should be aware of the four dialect effects. Companies would also benefit from training salespersons to improve their speech quality, rather than concealing their dialect. If possible, salespersons should deliberately modify their way of speaking in all phases of the service-selling process.

Schillings-Estes, N., (2002). American English Social Dialect Variation and Gender. Journal of English Linguistics, 30 (2), 122-137.

Abstract: No abstract.

Chapter 8: The Non-Verbal Code

Anger Elfenbein, H., (2103). Nonverbal Dialects and Accents in Facial Expressions of Emotion. Emotion Review, 5 (1), 90-96.

Abstract: This article focuses on a theoretical account integrating classic and recent findings on the communication of emotions across cultures: a dialect theory of emotion. Dialect theory uses a linguistic metaphor to argue emotion is a universal language with subtly different dialects. As in verbal language, it is more challenging to understand someone speaking a different dialect—which fits with empirical support for an in-group advantage, whereby individuals are more accurate judging emotional expressions from their own cultural group versus foreign groups. Dialect theory has sparked controversy with its implications for dominant theories about cross-cultural differences in emotion. This article reviews the theory, its mounting body of evidence, evidence for alternative accounts, and practical implications for multicultural societies.

Chen. F.S., Minson, J.A., Schone, M., & Heinrichs, M., (2013). In the Eye of the Beholder: Eye Contact Increases Resistance to Persuasion. Psychological Science, 24 (11), 2254-2261,

Abstract: Popular belief holds that eye contact increases the success of persuasive communication, and prior research suggests that speakers who direct their gaze more toward their listeners are perceived as more persuasive. In contrast, we demonstrate that more eye contact between the listener and speaker during persuasive communication predicts less attitude change in the direction advocated. In Study 1, participants freely watched videos of speakers expressing various views on controversial sociopolitical issues. Greater direct gaze at the speaker’s eyes was associated with less attitude change in the direction advocated by the speaker. In Study 2, we instructed participants to look at either the eyes or the mouths of speakers presenting arguments counter to participants’ own attitudes. Intentionally maintaining direct eye contact led to less persuasion than did gazing at the mouth. These findings suggest that efforts at increasing eye contact may be counterproductive across a variety of persuasion contexts.

Molinsky, A. L., Krabbenhoft, M.A., Ambady, N., & Choi, Y. S., (2005). Cracking the Nonverbal Code: Intercultural Competence and Gesture Recognition Across Cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36 (3), 380-395.

Abstract: The purpose of this set of studies was to assess whether the ability to distinguish between real and fake gestures in a foreign setting is positively associated with cultural adjustment to that setting. To do so, we created an original videotaped measure of gesture recognition accuracy (the GRT). Study 1 (n = 508) found positive associations between performance on the GRT and length of stay in the foreign setting and between GRT performance and self-reported intercultural communication competence. Study2 (n = 60) replicated the positive association between GRT performance and self-reported intercultural communication competence. It also found a positive association between GRT performance and external perceptions of intercultural communication competence and motivation as rated by observers native to the new cultural setting. Together, findings from the two studies highlight the importance of gesture recognition in the cultural adaptation process and the potential of the GRT measure as a useful assessment tool.

Seeman-Smith, J.C., Vogel, D.L., Madon, S., & Edwards, S.R. (2011). The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication Within Married Dyads. The Counseling Psychologist, 39 (5),764-787.

Abstract: Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In turn, the dyadic power theory proposes that both women and men will touch more depending on their goals in a given situation. The person initiating a topic of disagreement is more likely to touch in order to try and influence the other person to agree with his or her position. However, researchers have rarely examined the different assertions of these theories within intimate relationships. The present study, with 67 married heterosexual couples, was designed to provide an initial test of these theories. The authors focused on four types of touch across two problem-solving topics: one chosen by each spouse. Consistent with the dyadic power theory, results indicated that when couples discussed topics chosen by wives, wives exhibited more touches. However, no differences in these forms of touch emerged when couples discussed topics chosen by husbands. Implications for marital counseling and research are discussed.

Willadsen-Jensen , E.C., & to, T.A., (2008). A Foot in Both Worlds: Asian Americans' Perceptions of Asian, White, and Racially Ambiguous Faces. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11 (2),182-200.

Abstract: Past research on racial perception has often focused on responses from White participants, making it difficult to determine the role of perceiver race in the perception of others. Similarly, studies examining perceptions of individuals whose racial category membership is unclear have not systematically examined responses from non-Whites. This was addressed by showing Asian participants pictures of Whites, Asians, and racially ambiguous White-Asian faces. Event-related potentials were recorded to measure early attention responses. Participants initially oriented more to outgroup White than ingroup Asian or racially ambiguous faces. Shortly after that, they showed sensitivity to the racial context in which the faces were presented, more deeply processing ingroup Asian and racially ambiguous faces when they were seeing lots of other Asians, but more deeply processing outgroup White and racially ambiguous faces when they were seeing lots of other Whites. Still later, responses were more sensitive to the objective physical properties of the faces, with racially ambiguous faces differentiated from both Whites and Asians. These results demonstrate the fluidity of racial processing, and when compared to responses obtained from White participants, show how perceiver race and racial context influences attention to racial cues.

Chapter 9: Developing Intercultural Relationships

Forry, N.D., Leslie, L.A., & Letiecq, B.L. (2007). Marital Quality in Interracial Relationships: The Role of Sex Role Ideology and Perceived Fairness. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 1538-1552.

Abstract: African American/White interracial couples are a rapidly growing segment of the population. However, little is known about factors related to marital quality for these couples. The authors examine the relationships between sex role ideology, perception of relationship unfairness, and marital quality among a sample of 76 married African American/White interracial couples from the mid-Atlantic region. The results indicate that interracial couples are similar to same-race couples in some ways. In particular, women, regardless of race, report their marriages to be more unfair to them than do men. Unique experiences in interracial marriages based on one's race or race/gender combination are also identified. African Americans experience more ambivalence about their relationship than their White partners. Furthermore, sex role ideology has a moderating effect on perceived unfairness and marital quality for African American men. Similarities and differences among interracial and same-race marriages are discussed, with recommendations for future research.

Khallad, Y., (2005). Mate selection in Jordan: Effects of sex, socio-economic status, and culture.
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22 (2),155-168.

Abstract: The present study replicated Buss et al.’s (2001) international survey of mate preferences for long-term relationships within an Arab Jordanian context. As predicted, the findings confirmed the existence of commonly reported sex differences, in that our sample of Jordanian male college students showed greater interest in potential mates’ good looks and youth compared to female students, who displayed greater preference for mates exhibiting economic ability and commitment. The findings further indicated that women’s differential preferences for resource- and commitment-related attributes were mainly determined by sex rather than by socioeconomic status. The study also found that Jordanians value the same attributes that have been universally considered important to have in a mate, namely love, kindness, and a pleasing disposition. Belonging to a developing traditional society, this sample of Jordanian students, as anticipated, included religiosity and refinement/neatness among their top preferences. Also, the study corroborated the casually observed social phenomenon of aversion to marrying divorcees among Jordanians, with men in this sample being particularly disinclined to seek this type of mate. The findings are discussed in the context of some evolutionary and socio-cultural notions posited in explanations of mating behavior.

Tsunokai, G.T., McGrath, A.R., & Kavanagh, J.K., (2013). Online dating preferences of Asian Americans. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Published online 16, October, DOI: 10.1177/0265407513505925

Abstract: This study investigates the inter- and intraracial dating preferences of heterosexual Asian males and females as well as gay Asian males. Using data collected from 1270 Internet dating profiles, logistic regression is employed to examine the odds of one’s willingness to date someone who is Asian, White, Black, Hispanic, and some other race. The findings suggest that heterosexual females and gay males prefer to date Whites over nonwhites. Moreover, respondents from both sexual orientations were less likely to express a preference to date another Asian compared to their heterosexual male counterparts. Our results also reveal that educational attainment influences the willingness among Asians to date a fellow Asian. Finally, the analyses indicate significant differences in dating preferences based on the region of residence and age. The current results are discussed in relation to both the historical and present sociocultural racial climate, focusing on how media depictions and identity formation may play a part in shaping racial dating preferences for Asians.

Tsutsui, J., (2013). The transitional phase of mate selection in East Asian countries. International Sociology, 28 (3), 257-276.

Abstract: This study challenges the orthodox concept of mate selection. Existing research presupposes the binary conceptualization of ‘arranged marriage versus love marriage,’ which is too limited in scope to grasp the reality of transition in mate selection. An alternative model is proposed in this study and is applied to data from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Analyses suggest that a considerable number of cases cannot be described as either ‘traditional’ or ‘love’ marriages; these are considered transitional cases. In some cases, the couple’s first meeting is initiated by free will but with strong parental intervention regarding the decision to marry. In other cases, the first meeting is arranged by parents or kin, but the couple maintains free will. Three countries share basic trends regarding the shift between the types of mate selection, and an analysis shows that national differences regarding certain factors also explain the shift.

Zhang, S., & Kline, S.L., (2009). Can I Make my Own Decision? A Cross-Cultural Study of Perceived Social Network Influence in Mate Selection. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40 (1), 3-23.

Abstract: Two studies examined the comparative influence of network members on one's intention to marry and relational commitment among 616 college students in both China and the United States. Compared with U.S. participants, Chinese students believed that their dating partners would meet their filial piety beliefs, that such beliefs were more important in their potential decision to marrying their dating partners, and that they were more likely to comply with network members regarding the decision to marry. Network influence predicted Chinese marital intentions and relationship commitment, whereas relationship length and beliefs about support, care, living a better life, and network influence predicted U.S. participants' marital intentions and/or relationship commitment.

Chapter 10: Intercultural Conflict

Bercovitvh, J., & Foulkes, J., (2012). Cross-cultural effects in conflict management: Examining the nature and relationship between culture and international mediation. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 12 (1), 25-47.

Abstract: While the importance of culture in organizational behavior has long been accepted, scholars of political science are still trying to come to terms with the concept and its implications. Traditional approaches to conflict emphasize the supremacy of the state while ignoring many of the unique internal features which differ between states. We argue that this is a mistaken approach and that one feature in particular, namely culture, does indeed have a profound effect on how states perceive the world, behave in it, and manage their conflicts. Culture has become more important in the current environment, where much conflict takes place not just between states, but mostly between groups, divided along cultural or religious lines, within a state. In this paper we want to examine how culture affects the process and effectiveness of international mediation. We develop a theoretical framework to examine culture, its dimensions, and how these may impact on mediation. We use a large-scale dataset of international mediation events to assess the relevance of our notions, and find that cultural variation does indeed have a significant impact on mediation and conflict resolution. We conclude by suggesting that greater attention be paid to cross-cultural factors in international conflict management.

Leung, K., Brew, F.P., Zhang, Z.X., & Zhang, Y., (2011). Harmony and Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Investigation in China and Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42 (5), 795-816.

Abstract: Study 1 identified three distinct harmony factors in Hong Kong: disintegration avoidance, harmony enhancement, and harmony as hindrance. Furthermore, disintegration avoidance was found to relate positively to conflict avoidance and negatively to negotiation in a conflict situation. Study 2 examined how the harmony factors were related to various conflict styles in China and Australia. The three harmony factors were identifiable in Australia, but the Chinese scored higher in both disintegration avoidance and harmony enhancement. For the two groups, disintegration avoidance was related positively to avoiding and dominating and negatively to integrating, whereas harmony enhancement was related positively to compromising and integrating. Compromising was related more strongly to harmony enhancement than to disintegration avoidance. Finally, disintegration avoidance was positively related to compromising and obliging for Chinese but not for Australians. The study extends the current conflict management research by incorporating the Chinese notion of harmony.

Martinez-Lozano, V., Sanchez-Mdeina, J.A., & Goudena, P.P. (2011). A Cross-Cultural Study of Observed Conflicts Between Young Children. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42 (6), 895-907.

Abstract: Young children (5 to 6 years old) from an individualistic (the Netherlands) culture and a collectivistic (South of Spain: Andalusia) culture were videotaped during leisure time on their school playground. Based on the perspective of individualism-collectivism (IND-COL), cultural differences were expected with respect to observed conflict behaviors. Conflict episodes were analyzed with respect to conflict issues, strategies, and outcomes. In Andalusia, an unexpected high number of conflicts were observed, about three times higher than in the Netherlands. As expected, Andalusian children turned out to be more concerned with control of play and behavior and Dutch children more with control of objects and space. With respect to strategy use, Andalusian children used negotiation more often than Dutch children. The latter included more often nonverbal and directive ingredients in their strategies. Dutch children ended their conflicts by means of social or physical rupture much more often than Andalusian children. The latter preferred to continue the interaction, even if this required submission to others’ wishes. Results are discussed from the perspective of IND-COL, with particular emphasis on four characteristics of studies of peer conflicts: definition of conflict, method of data collection, age of participants, and social setting of the participants.

Mayer, C.H., & Louw, L., (2012). Managing cross-cultural conflict in organizations. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 12 (1), 3-8.

Abstract: No abstract.

Chapter 11: Intercultural Communication in Business, Health Care and Educational Settings

Ashiabi, G. S., (2013). Variations in African American and Non-Hispanic White Children’s Health Care Utilization. SAGE Open, 3,1-10.

Abstract: A multigroup structural equation model was used to investigate the processes underlying health care use between Black and White children. Data from the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH), a computer-assisted telephone survey, were used. The sample for this research consisted of 28,064 Black and White children, ages 4 to 11 years, drawn from the larger pool of children whose families participated in the survey. Results showed that the processes underlying health care use were similar for Blacks and Whites; however, there were some differences in factor loadings between Blacks and Whites. Furthermore, there were differences between Blacks and Whites in the effects of (a) family economic resources on health problems, (b) health problems and access to care on parental distress, and (c) access to care and health problems on prevention- and curative-based use. No interaction effects were found for Blacks and Whites in the associations between (a) parental distress, and satisfaction with physician interaction and health care usage, and (b) satisfaction with physician interactions and health care utilization.

Ghosh, S., & Saha, M. (2013). Health Communication and Behavioural Change: An Exploratory Study among Marginalized Communities in Rural West Bengal, India. Journal of Health Management, 15, (3), 307-327.

Abstract: A small-scale research/intervention project that aimed to develop and test an integrated package of communication campaign on health awareness among women belonging to the marginalized community was implemented in an underdeveloped setting of West Bengal, India during 2010–11. A quasi-experimental research design, with cross-sectional surveys conducted in six intervention and control villages at the baseline and endline, was used to evaluate the outcome of intervention among 1,196 respondents. This article examines the impact of behaviour change communication intervention on knowledge, reporting of illnesses and treatment-seeking of symptoms of general and gynaecological morbidity. Analyses included multiple, binary logistic and multinomial logistic regressions using a Difference-in-Difference estimator. Results of the evaluation suggest that the net effect of exposure to the intervention had a positive and significant impact on most of the indicators reflecting an increased level of awareness about signs and symptoms of general and reproductive complications. However, the net effect of exposure was mixed for the indicators of reporting of illnesses, pattern and sources of seeking treatment. The experience of implementing the project demonstrates that it is possible to improve women’s general and reproductive health awareness and practices which could have resulted in positive health outcomes in the long run.

Khatri, N. (2009). Consequences of Power Distance Orientation in Organisations. Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, 13,( 1), 1-9.

Abstract: The cultural milieu has a profound influence on employee behaviour in the organisations. In an increasingly diverse workplace and in a more globalised business world, managers, to be effective, need to appreciate behavioural implications of cultural values that employees, organisations, and societies hold. One of the most cited frameworks to understand behaviour of people across the national cultures was proposed by Hofstede (2001). In this paper, we take a look at the behavioural implications in the organisations of power distance (status differences), which is one of the five cultural dimensions in Hofstede's framework. Specifically, we explore the impact of power distance orientation on employee participation, nature of job descriptions, organisational communication and decision-making, discipline and control, deference to senior employees, management development, and organisational structuring and adaptation. We conclude that: (1) employees in a high power distance context are unwilling to participate in decisions and are content with their managers making decisions and giving them instructions, which they follow passively. (2) jobs are narrowly and tightly specified, giving the employees limited discretion. (3) communication takes place vertical downwards, with no or little horizontal communication. Overall communication is anemic. A large communication gap exists between superiors and their subordinates because it is hard for the subordinates to air their views. (4) power distance gives managers unlimited power and control over subordinates. Employees, in turn, have an unquestioning, submissive attitude. (5) older and senior employees get respect from junior employees not because of former's competence but because of age and long tenure in the organisation. (6) in a high power distance culture, decisions are made by a few at the top autocratically Further, because of little resistance from lower level employees, decisions are made and implemented faster in a high power distance organisation. However, because of lack of input from lower level employees as well as poor communication and information sharing, quality of decisions is poorer in a high power distance organisation. (7) high power distance organisations are prone to unethical behaviour. This is because top managers have not to justify or defend their decisions to lower level employees or to the larger organisation. Unethical behaviour gets covered up or goes undetected. And (8), in a high power distance organisation, managers tend to micromanage and even minor decisions go to the top. Thus, higher level managers are inundated with routine decisions.

Madlock, P.E., (2012). The Influence of Power Distance and Communication on Mexican Workers. Journal of Business Communication, 49 (2), 169-184.

Abstract: This study extended communication scholarship by examining the influence of cultural congruency between micro- and macro-cultures regarding power distance on Mexican employees’ communication behaviors, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Included were the responses from 168 full-time nonmanagement working adults of Mexican origin working in Mexican organizations. The current study was grounded by the theory of independent mindedness. The findings offered support for the value of cultural congruency between the societal culture (macro) and the organizational culture (micro). Additional findings indicated that power distance, avoidance messages, communication apprehension, and communication satisfaction, were all positively related to the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of Mexican employees.

Neuliep, J.W., (1997). A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Teacher Immediacy in American and Japanese College Classrooms. Communication Research, 24, (4),431-451.

Abstract: Cross-cultural perceptions of teacher immediacy of American and Japanese college teachers were compared. American (n = 191) and Japanese (n = 227) college students completed versions of the Teacher Immediacy Scale and indices of cognitive, affective, and behavioral learning. Consistent with the general hypothesis guiding the study, perceptions of teacher immediacy were higher for the American sample than Japanese sample. Significant positive correlations between immediacy and measures of cognitive, affective, and behavioral learning were observed for both groups, but the correlations were significantly greater for the Americans. Regression analysis revealed that nonverbal immediacy was more predictive of learning outcomes than verbal immediacy for the Japanese sample, whereas verbal immediacy was more predictive of learning outcomes than nonverbal immediacy for the American sample.

Ogu., L.C., Janakiram, J., Hoffan, H.J., McDonough, L., Valencia, A.P., Mackey, E. R., & Klein, C.J., (2014). Hispanic Overweight and Obese Children: Thirty Cases Managed With Standard WIC Counseling or Motivational Interviewing. ICAN: Infant, Child, & Adolescent Nutrition, 6 (1), 35-4.

Abstract: Through Value Enhanced Nutrition Assessment and other techniques, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) engages clients to set their own nutrition goals. A case series of 30 Hispanic children (2-4.5 years) at ≥85th body mass index (BMI) percentile and their caregivers were followed through an urban WIC clinic. The dyads received either standard counseling (n = 15) or motivational interviewing (MI; n = 15) by one bilingual WIC nutritionist during 4 regularly scheduled visits over 6 months. Repeated measurements of anthropometric data, dietary patterns, and physical activity were obtained at each visit. Longitudinal bivariate analyses of caregiver concerns and goal selection were conducted along with mean comparisons of anthropometric and food frequency measures. Participation in counseling sessions as rated by the nutritionist was assessed by comparing Wilcoxon rank-sum scores. After counseling, children lost an adjusted mean weight of 0.878 kg (95% confidence interval = 0.280-1.717). A decline in median BMI of more than 3 percentiles (P = .042) was observed with both counseling approaches. Caregiver-reported vegetable intake of children increased an average of one additional serving in the MI-counseled group by visit 3 (P = .013) despite MI recipient caregivers being scored as significantly more distracted than standard WIC participants in the first visit (P = .036). MI is a viable option for WIC counseling to improve diet and health outcomes in participants, particularly in addressing child BMI status and vegetable intake. Public health professionals should examine scalability of the MI approach among larger samples of WIC participants and other innovative techniques to improve client focus during counseling.

Chapter 12: Acculturation, Culture Shock and Intercultural Competence

Buttaro, L., (2004). Second-Language Acquisition, Culture Shock, and Language Stress of Adult Female Latina Students in New York. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 3 (1), 21-49.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the educational, cultural, and linguistic adjustments and experiences encountered by Hispanic adult females in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the relation of these experiences to the variables of language, culture, and education of adult Hispanic females. Adult ESL learners face problems of controlling linguistic rules and of applications in various situations while attempting to deal with the shock of living in a new cultural environment.

Pyvis, D., & Chapman, A., (2005). Culture shock and the international student ‘offshore’. Journal of Research in International Education, 4 (1), 23-42.

Abstract: Within the context of higher education, it is the international student who travels to another country to study who is typically identified as the subject at risk of culture shock. This paper attempts to go further by suggesting that international students studying in their home country with an overseas institution may also experience culture shock as an effect of this engagement. To support this contention, the paper reports findings of an interpretive case study of a group of masters' degree students in Singapore taught by an Australian university in partnership with a local provider.

Van der Zee, K., & van Oudenhoven, J. P., (2013). Culture Shock or Challenge? The Role of Personality as a Determinant of Intercultural Competence. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44 (6), 928-940.

Abstract: This paper provides a theoretical basis for the empirical link between traits and intercultural success indicators relying on the A (Affect) B (Behavior) C (Cognition)-model of culture shock. With respect to affect, we argue that intercultural traits can be differentiated according to whether they predispose individuals to be (in-)sensitive to either threat or challenge. Whereas stress-related traits (emotional stability, flexibility) are linked to a lower tendency to perceive an intercultural situation as threatening, social-perceptual traits (social initiative, open-mindedness) may predispose individuals to perceive its challenging aspects and respond with positive affect. As a behavioral consequence, stress-buffering traits may protect against culture shock, whereas social-perceptual traits may facilitate cultural learning. Finally, the ABC-model defines cognitions in terms of associated cultural identity patterns. Whereas stress-related traits may help individuals refrain from sticking to one’s own culture, social-perceptual traits reinforce identification with new culture. Implications for training and development are discussed.

Roskell, D., (2013). Cross-cultural transition: International teachers’ experience of ‘culture shock.’ Journal of Research in International Education, 12 (2), 155-172.

Abstract: Decades of ‘culture shock’ research has generally focused on student and business sojourners; few studies have examined the experience of teachers who relocate abroad to teach in international schools. This study addresses this imbalance and examines the perspective of 12 teachers who experienced cross-cultural transition in moving abroad to teach in an international school in South East Asia. An underlying assumption is that such teachers will inevitably experience some degree of culture shock. This study proffers a detailed description and analysis of the first year of these 12 teachers, delineating how they negotiated the stages of culture shock and whether they adjusted successfully. Their experience is also interpreted and discussed from the perspective of ‘loss’.

Author: James W. Neuliep

Pub Date: February 2014

Pages: 528

Learn more about this book